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Interpretation of Rembrandt's oil painting skills-One of the greatest artists

Rembrandt (1609-1669) was born in Leiden, the Netherlands. When he was young, Rembrandt studied painting in Amsterdam and studied with piert rastmann. He is famous for his portraits from the perspective of psychoanalysis. Piert rastmann himself studied in Italy and was deeply influenced by Caravaggio. As a student, Rembrandt also loved the strong contrast between light and shade in Italy.
Rembrandt's early period is a typical Dutch painting style in the 17th century, but his paintings in the middle and later periods have changed significantly. Rembrandt further developed the thick painting method, increased its thickness under the light, and made the shadow more transparent. Rembrandt's long-term self portraits record his success and failure in his career, as well as his development in oil painting techniques.
Rembrandt and Rubens can be called the most outstanding master of oil painting techniques. They make all kinds of contrast effects as possible, from transparency and opacity, light and dark, clear edges and fuzzy cloud like edges, all the way to cold and warm color contrast.
Palette oil used by Rembrandt
The toner used by Rembrandt is a thick, gelatinous toner, which is thick and fast drying. Rembrandt is very prominent in the shadow of his high convex part of the painting to reflect the three-dimensional feeling of the painting. In Rembrandt's painting, the shadow is transparent and black, the light area and shadow area have the same color thickness but are opaque, and the color matching oil is easy to dry, which makes the whole painting strokes very obvious.
Although Rembrandt's every stroke makes him feel handy, but the whole painting gives people a difficult painting effect. Rembrandt didn't have Rubens' talent for painting. He always began to modify his painting when it was almost dry and suitable for painting with a brush. So Rembrandt's painting will give people a feeling of painting first and then hard to modify the picture, as if using the painting brush to pull the mucus. This feeling is more obvious in the light area of the painting.
The following demonstration of Rembrandt's oil painting techniques uses the same toner oil as Rubens's: a variety of basic toner oil. See how to make a toner oil suitable for imitating Rembrandt's oil painting for details.
Rembrandt's oil painting background
Rembrandt mainly painted on the canvas with gray tone, and he also painted some paintings with coloring method once on the drawing board, but most of Rembrandt's paintings were completed on the canvas in several parts.
In the demonstration painting of Rembrandt's oil painting technique, the canvas is fixed on 12.7cm plywood. In this way, it has the stable support of wood board and the texture of canvas. The preparation process of the canvas is the same as that of the Titian painting. For details, please refer to the steps of painting with Titian oil painting techniques. At the end of the canvas, there is a layer of raw ochre, lead white and color oil. This layer of color can be used as the base color, and make the canvas not absorb water. After it is dry, it can be painted.
Rembrandt's painting steps
Most of Rembrandt's portraits are direct sketches. His body painting is not as fluent as other masters, so his paintings are completed in several parts. Through the continuous careful modification of each part, to achieve the best effect. Rembrandt first used warm brown and palette oil to draw a sketch of the portrait on the canvas, and warm brown to draw transparent shadows. Then apply an opaque, light toned skin tone to the shininess of the skin of oil painting reproductions and blend with the shadow. Like Rubens, Rembrandt emphasized the strong contrast between transparency and opacity. Rembrandt not only uses black and white cold gray to show the transition color between light and dark, but also directly uses the bottom color gray of the drawing board to change to the transition color. Because of the yellow light, the gray is mostly green.
Rembrandt uses Rubens's one-off coloring method to combine the shapes, and only uses one tone. Rembrandt constantly highlights the contrast between the thick opaque light area and the transparent shadow of the used toner oil, as well as the cool and warm colors.
When Rembrandt's painting color is about to become sticky and dry, and the paintbrush is hard to move, he can mix colors, which has become the characteristics of Rembrandt's painting. But for many painters, this method is very difficult. After a long time, when the color of the picture is completely condensed, Rembrandt let the canvas dry.
At the beginning of the second part, Rembrandt diluted black or brown with palette oil, polished the whole picture, cast the whole figure into shadow, and then carefully wiped out the color of the light area with a cloth. Some of the light color will stay in the thick color cracks of the picture, which makes the whole picture more three-dimensional. Usually Rembrandt's painting can be completed in several parts. Rembrandt's picture is soft, with thick shadows in the light area, which can be called a miracle in the history of painting.
Color and brush
The first part: lead white, light turquoise, French light vermilion, scarlet, ripe ochre, ripe brown, ivory black.
The second part: ivory black.
Brushes 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 round bristles, 5 round sable and small flat bristles.
Demonstration painting of Rembrandt's oil painting techniques
1. Use brown color and a little color oil to draw a sketch on the canvas. In this step, it is the most important to grasp the position of each part of the characters.
2. Use ripe brown to further improve the picture. Paint some transparent colors like watercolor on the dark side of the characters. Apply turquoise, ripe ochre and ivory black to the background. At this time, the background does not need to be uniform, so you can directly color on the canvas to make some colors thicker than others.
3. Use a large, dry, flat bristle brush to mix colors in the background, but still keep the background color from being too even. Then use turquoise, French light vermilion and a little white on the palette to bring out the skin color. Apply the adjusted complexion to the skin with a bristle brush.